Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
The purpose of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system on your engine is to limit oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. This is done by redirecting small amounts of exhaust gas back through the upper intake to get mixed in with the air/fuel charge. The resultant diluted air/fuel mixture (i.e., less oxygen per cubic foot) burns cooler and combustion chamber temperatures are reduced accordingly, thereby lowering NOx emissions.
The Ford DPFE/EGR System
The Ford DPFE/EGR system is controlled by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). The system employs an EGR Valve, an Electronic Vacuum Regulator (EVR), and a Delta Pressure Feedback EGR sensor (DPFE).
- The EGR valve is mounted on (or very close) to the upper intake and is connected to both the intake and the exhaust system by virtue of a special EGR Tube. The valve has a vacuum port that allows it to be controlled (opened and closed) by the EVR. When the valve is open, exhaust gas flows into the upper intake and mixes with the a/f charge.
- The DPFE Sensor measures EGR flow across an orifice located inside the special EGR Tube. The orifice is positioned between two hose ports coming off the tube which are connected to the DPFE sensor with special heat-resistant hoses. When the EGR Valve is open, a pressure differential is created across the orifice (intake manifold pressure vs. exhaust pressure). By design, this difference in pressure is measured by the DPFE sensor in terms of voltage. The DPFE voltage signal output to the PCM is directly proportional to the flow of exhaust gas entering the intake manifold.
The PCM determines optimal conditions for EGR flow and then, based on the DPFE voltage signal and some other sensor data, activates the EVR to open and close the EGR valve as necessary.
- The EVR is a solenoid with two vacuum ports. One port is connected to a vacuum source/supply, and the other is connected to the EGR valve. There is also a passage that vents vacuum to the atmosphere.
A disc inside the solenoid is moved by electro-magnetic force, as directed by the PCM. If more EGR flow is required, the PCM increases the duty-cycle to the EVR, moving the disc to close off the atmospheric vent, which in turn increases the amount of vacuum flow to the EGR valve. If less EGR flow is desired, the PCM decreases the duty-cycle to the EVR, allowing for more atmospheric venting and hence less vacuum flow to the EGR valve.
The EVR is a "normally closed" solenoid, which means that when it is de-energized, the position of the disc allows for maximum venting to the atmosphere (resulting in negligible vacuum flow to the EGR valve).Note that Ford EGR systems DO NOT engage when:
1) The engine is cold ;